100 Top
Economies:

Urban Influence and the Position of Cities in an Evolving World Order

Cities have long been hubs of the global economy, both concentrating and facilitating the flow of people, goods, resources, and wealth. Some, such as New York and Tokyo, have enjoyed a lasting reputation as global business destinations with a concentration of institutions that lead in commerce and trade, manufacturing, and business services. Others, such as Beijing, Houston, and Jakarta, are newer to contemporary global economic leadership. One thing is certain: cities—more specifically, metropolitan areas—are decidedly at the center of the global economy.

Cities Make Up 42 of the World’s 100 Largest Economic Entities

When looking at cities, corporations, and nation-states

Most of these cities are located in Asia, China alone has 8 cities.
Only 2 cities rank in the top 25 economies: Tokyo and New York.
One-third of the cities in the top 100 economies are national political capitals.

Cities of the Top 100 Economies

Of the top 100 global economies, a majority of the metropolitan areas listed are located in Asia and North America, with 18 and 14 cities listed respectively. The United States has the most of any country with 12 cities, followed by China with 8. Only 6 cities from Western Europe are among the top 100.

Cities among the top 100 economies contribute an outsized proportion of their respective national gross domestic product (GDP), accounting for an average economic share that is 1.5 times greater than their share of the national population. Not surprisingly, cities located in countries with few other major metropolitan areas make up a significant share of the country’s overall GDP. Similarly, cities located in countries with larger economies and several major metropolitan areas represent a relatively smaller share of the national GDP.

Top 10 Cities as Percent of National GDP

Seoul-Incheon

47.4%

$804.2 B

Rotterdam-Amsterdam

39.6%

$304.8 B

Tokyo

34.0%

$1,536.9 T

London

32.0%

$794.4 B

Bangkok

28.8%

$291.7 B

Paris

27.6%

$679.8 B

Istanbul

23.1%

$331.5 B

Mexico City

18.8%

$383.7 B

Toronto

17.3%

$262.7 B

Madrid

16.9%

$249.4 B

City Peer Groupings

Just two cities rank in the top 25 economies: Tokyo and New York, both with metropolitan GDPs of more than $1 trillion. Relative to similarly sized national economies, their economic outputs place them among Canada, Spain, and Turkey. Below is how the 42 metropolitan areas stand in comparison to some national economies.
Cities:
Select peer countries:
Quartile 1
(1-25)
Tokyo
New York City

 

Canada
Spain
Turkey

Quartile 2
(26-50)
Los Angeles
Seoul-Incheon
London
Paris
Osaka-Kobe
Shanghai
Chicago
Moscow
Beijing
Köln-Düsseldorf
Houston

Philippines
Columbia
United Arab Emirates

Quartile 3
(51-75)
Washington, DC
São Paulo
Hong Kong
Dallas
Mexico City
Guangzhou

Tianjin
Singapore
Nagoya
Shenzhen
Boston
Istanbul

Romania
Austria
Peru

Quartile 4
(76-100)
Philadelphia
Suzhou
San Francisco
Taipei
Jakarta
Rotterdam-Amsterdam
Buenos Aires
Chongqing
Milan
Bangkok
Busan-Ulsan
Atlanta
Delhi
Toronto
Seattle
Miami
Madrid

Czech Republic
Qatar
Portugal

To read the complete list of the world's largest economies, including cities, corporations, and countries, download the full report, 100 Top Economies: Urban Influence and the Position of Cities in an Evolving World Order.

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